No wheel was actually used in the construction of the Great Pyramid – but without the wheel it could not be built.
The Egyptians were smart enough to know of the wheel but in sandy soil the wheel is worthless. They, however, had another purpose for the wheel and it became a sacred object that ONLY the Pharaohs were allowed to use.
Hemiunu, the architect of the Great Pyramid, had a horrendous problem – how do your surveyors accurately map out the pyramid – 755.7 feet wide to an accuracy of an inch over rough surfaces? How do you measure the same distance many times, to insure accuracy, and come up with exactly the same measurement? How do you survey distances at the construction zone and accurately duplicate them at the quarry pits?
The wheel is the ONLY way to do this – today we use lasers, GPS, telescope rangefinders, and such but the Egyptians were basically stone-age people and had to do the same exact accurate measurements.
The potter’s wheel was invented thousands of years before the
Egyptians and they made clay pots to contain water and all kinds of things. Bowls and plates were probably used by the Pharaohs. Clay pots were found in many Pharaohs tombs that contained grains of wheat that sprouted 5,000 years after sealing them in those pots.
If the radius is 1 Royal Cubit then the circumference, 2πR, is 6.28571 Cubits which is a very important number at the Great Pyramid. The Egyptians knew π was close to 22/7=3.14286.
The Great Pyramid is 440 Cubits wide and divided by the height, 280 Cubits = 1/2π and that means as they built higher and higher ALL the measurements would be related to π and a whole number of revolutions. Here’s an example:
440 Cubit base divided by 2πR (R=radius of 1 is 6.28571 Cubits) = 70.000 revolutions of the wheel.
The diagonal of the pyramid base is √440^2 + 440^2 = 622.25396 Cubits and dividing by 2πR = 99.000 revolutions.
With the base and diagonal distances of the pyramid, the other 3 points can be triangulated with great accuracy; throw in knowing the ultra accurate True North and East and no other measuring device could result in the accuracy the pyramids have. A GPS and laser today can not generate a more accurate result.
The Egyptians knew how to multiply, add, and take square roots. Finding the hypotenuse of a rectangle is something they didn’t have to wait 2,000 years for Pythagoras to figure out. They demonstrated a knowledge of 3-4-5 rectangles in their mathematics.
If you have problems with the math, then they could and did build scale models and counted blocks.
Surveyors could accurately measure the distances for the pyramids fast, accurate, and could duplicate this accuracy at the quarry sites. Having the base and the diagonal allowed the Egyptians to place the corners of the pyramids to within an inch over the vast distances. This allowed for a perfectly square pyramid aligned to True North.
As the pyramid was built, the distances to the other edge of the pyramid always came out to whole or easy fractions of the rotation of the measuring wheel. I’m guessing that the measuring wheel was made out of stone since they had a lot of it and knew how to accurately make things from them.
I’m guessing that each quarry site had at least 2 measuring wheels and the pyramid had 2 also for a total of maybe 10 of these things. They were constantly checked for accuracy and repaired or fixed when needed. 2 are needed so one could be double checked the other and if a disagreement occurred both would be replaced.
Since the wheel became a sacred object it was never recorded in writings or on paintings and the reason there is no mention of it anywhere. It next appeared about 1,000 years later when road beds were constructed to support the vehicles of wagons and chariots.
The alternatives to the wheel are ropes, which stretch and rot, or measuring sticks which accumulate small errors when manufactured and changed length with humidity, and temperature. Imagine laying out 440 Royal Cubic measuring sticks and pushing them together and not bending them over 750 feet in the hot broiling sun?
A copper band would surround the wheel and when needed a new one could be added.
Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle